Adnan Sozen Energy Systems Engineering Technology Gazi University Ankara Turkey Biography
Biography of Adnan Sozen
Dr. Adnan Sozen received his PhD in Mechanical Engineering from the Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gazi University. Currently, he is an Associate Professor in the Energy Systems Engineering Technology Faculty, Gazi University, Turkey. His research interests include Renewable Energy Systems, Solar Energy Applications, GES Feasibility, Nanofluidics, nano-coolers, Heating/Cooling Systems, Heat Recovery Systems, Françis type Turbine Design, HEPP projects, Energy Management Performance Evaluation, Energy and Environmental Effectiveness, Fluid mechanics, Thermodynamics, Heat transfer, Optimization Techniques, Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Data Envelopment Analysis, Nuclear Power Plants, and Absorption Cooling/Heating Systems. He has contributed more than 100 publications in different scientific journals. Besides, he is the Associate Editor of the Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering Technology and the Editor in Chief of Journal of Polytechnic and Current Alternative Energy.
Umer Rashid Department of Chemical Engineering Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang Malaysia Biography
Biography of Umer Rashid
Dr. Umer Rashid has been working as a Fellow Researcher at the Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia since 2011. He has done Post Doctorate in Green Engineering from Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia, and PhD in Analytical Chemistry from University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. He was attached with USDA, Peoria, IL, USA for PhD research work. His research is focused on development of metal and bio-based heterogeneous nano-catalysts from waste biomass and renewable fuels from unexplored oils. He is a well-known international scientist and has published more than 230 research articles with a cumulative impact factor of 1064 and h-index of 45.
Dongfang Yang Department of Chemistry National Research Council Canada London, ON Canada Biography
Biography of Dongfang Yang
Dongfang Yang received his Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from the University of Guelph in 1995. He joined the National Research Council Canada in 2001 and is now a Senior Research Officer. His current research interests include laser materials processing; pulsed laser, sputtering and e-beam deposition of thin films; new materials development for energy storage; and chemical and optical sensors development. He is currently serving as an editor or the member of editorial board for 10 scientific journals and was listed among the first 2% most-cited scientists according to a recent Stanford study in 2020. He also holds an Adjunct Professorship at Western University in Canada.
Francesco D'Auria DESTEC [Energy Department] University of Pisa Pisa Italy
Chuanwen Jiang Department of Electrical Engineering Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai China
Mostafa El-Sheekh Faculty of Science University of Tanta Tanta Egypt Biography
Biography of Mostafa El-Sheekh
Prof. Dr. Mostafa El-Sheekh is a Professor of Phycology. He has nearly 33 years of experience in the research and teaching in the field of algae and its applications. He served as the Dean Faculty of Science, Tanta University and Cultural counselor in Egyptian Embassy in Yemen and Uzbekistan. He holds a Ph.D. in Phycology from Tanta University and Göttingen University as Chanel system fellowship. Notably, Dr. El-Sheekh has authored more than 110 manuscripts, and 4 Book chapters 2 of them on Biodiesel production from microalgae. He is also a faculty member at Tanta University, Egypt where he teaches "Algal uses and applications". He also serves as an editorial member and reviewer for more than 50 peer reviewed Journals.
Section: Solar Energy
Chi-Ping Li Department of Chemical Engineering National United University Miaoli Taiwan
Section: Solar Cells
Dongchan Lim Korea Institute of Materials Science Surface Technology Division Changwon South Korea Biography
Biography of Dongchan Lim
Dr. D.C. Lim is Principal researcher of Korea Institute of Materials Science which is one of the government research institutes. He has nearly 15 years of experience in material- and physical-chemistry. He got a Ph.D in Physics department, Konstanz university, Germany, and has authored more than 100 manuscript, 30 patents till now, which are related to the fabrication of various nanomaterials, thin film, beyond nanomaterials like size-selected metal cluster, and energy materials/device such as next generation solar cell, solar-to-fuel, water splitting/purification, etc.
Section: Energy Efficiency
Behzad Rismanchi Department of Infrastructure Engineering University of Melbourne Parkville Australia Biography
Biography of Behzad Rismanchi
Dr. Behzad Rismanchi is a Senior Lecturer in building energy in the Department of Infrastructure Engineering. He is a professional member of Engineers Australia and is a certified energy manager (CEM) with over 15 years of experience in research, design and optimisation of energy systems. He has worked across all aspects of the project lifecycle and is particularly skilled in complex system modelling, energy management systems, indoor air quality and computational fluid dynamics. After receiving his MSc in Mechanical Engineering, he started his career in the Oil and gas industry and then moved to Renewable Energies and Environmentally Sustainable Development (ESD) and got his PhD in Energy Management. As an energy consultant, he has been involved in several national and international projects in Australia, Malaysia, Dubai and Indonesia. Behzad is an active advocate for the design of sustainable, liveable and healthy communities.
Editorial Board Members
Mohd A. Abdullah Institue of Marine biotechnology Universiti Malaysia Terengganu Kuala Terengganu Malaysia Biography
Biography of Mohd A. Abdullah
Dr. Mohd Azmuddin Abdullah obtained a Master of Engineering (M. Eng) in Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology (1994) from the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), United Kingdom under PETRONAS scholarship, and a PhD in Bioprocess Engineering (1999) from Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) under UPM scholarship. Since 2015, he is an Associate Professor and a researcher in the Bioprocess and Environmental Engineering Programme, Institute of Marine Biotechnology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT). He has published more than 170 articles in peer reviewed journals, conference proceedings, book chapters and technical reports. He has also reviewed more than 300 articles for the internationally and nationally reputable journals and conferences.
Mohammad A. Abido Electrical Engineering Department King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Dhahran Saudi Arabia Biography
Biography of Mohammad A. Abido
Dr. M. A. Abido received the B.Sc. (Honors with first class) and M.Sc. degrees in EE from Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt, in 1985 and 1989, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree from King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, in 1997. He is currently a Distinguished University Professor at KFUPM. He is also a Senior Researcher at K.A.CARE Energy Research & Innovation Center, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. His research interests are power system control and operation and renewable energy resources integration to power systems. Dr. Abido is the recipient of the KFUPM Excellence in Research Award, 2002, 2007 and 2012, KFUPM Best Project Award, 2007 and 2010, First Prize Paper Award of the Industrial Automation and Control Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, 2003, Abdel-Hamid Shoman Prize for Young Arab Researchers in Engineering Sciences, 2005, Best Applied Research Award of 15thGCC-CIGRE Conference, Abu-Dhabi, UAE, 2006, and Best Poster Award, International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’13), Bilbao, Spain, 2013. Dr. Abido has been awarded Almarai Prize for Scientific Innovation 2017-2018, Distinguished Scientist, Saudi Arabia, 2018 and Khalifa Award for Education 2017-2018, Higher Education, Distinguished University Professor in Scientific Research, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 2018. Dr. Abido has published two books and more than 400 papers in reputable journals and international conferences. He participated in 60+ funded projects and supervised 50+ MS and Ph.D. students. Dr. Abido has accumulated 14,700+ citations with h-index of 50 and i10-index of 154 according to Google Scholar accessed on July 1, 2020.
Pouria Ahmadi Department of Mechanical Engineering Simon Fraser University Vancouver, BC Canada Biography
Biography of Pouria Ahmadi
Dr. Pouria Ahmadi is a Research Associate at Fuel Cell Research Lab (FCReL) at Simon Fraser University (SFU), Vancouver, Canada. He has more than 10 years of experience in both academia and industry working on related topic on clean energy and thermal systems design. Prior to joining SFU, he was a postdoctoral fellow at Ryerson University in Toronto, Ontario where he worked on integrated renewable energy technologies for net zero energy community in London, Ontario, Canada. He holds a PhD in Mechanical Engineering from Clean Energy Lab (CEL) at University of Ontario, Canada. Dr. Ahmadi has authored more than 75 publications in both high ranked and peer-reviewed journals and international conferences.
Selahaddin O. Akansu Department of Mechanical Engineering Erciyes University Kayseri Turkey Biography
Biography of Selahaddin O. Akansu
Dr. Selahaddin Orhan Akansu is a Professor at Erciyes University Engineering Faculty, Department of Mechanical Engineering. He received his Ph.D. in 1999 from Erciyes University in Mechanical Engineering. His field of interest revolves around wind turbines, fuel combustion and stroke engines. He has published several articles and conference proceedings in various national/international journals.
Ahmad M. Mohammad Al-Akraa Department of Chemistry Cairo University Cairo Egypt Biography
Biography of Ahmad M. Mohammad Al-Akraa
Dr. Ahmad M. Mohammad received his B.Sc. in 1995 from the Faculty of Science at Cairo University. He was awarded M.Sc. (Physical Chemistry-Surface Chemistry) and Ph.D. (Physical Chemistry-Nanotechnology) from Cairo University in 1999 and 2004, respectively. In 2001, he joined the Pennsylvania State University as a Research Assistant for two years. In 2005, he joined the Tokyo Institute of Technology as a research fellow and collaborated over there with Sanyo Electric Co, Ltd for two years. He worked for the British University in Egypt (Egypt/ Associate Professor/ 2011-2015), American University in Cairo (Egypt/Professor/2019) and Higher Technological Institute (Egypt/Professor/2019). Currently, he is an Associate Professor of Physical Chemistry at Cairo University. His main research deals with the fabrication of hybrid nanomaterial for water treatment and energy conversions. So far, he has published 72 articles in reputable international journals, participated in 92 conferences and owned several recognitions and awards.
Prabhakarn Arunachalam Department of Chemistry King Saud University Riyadh Saudi Arabia Biography
Biography of Prabhakarn Arunachalam
Dr. Prabhakarn Arunachalam is currently working as an Assistant Professor in the Electrochemistry Research Group, Chemistry Department, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. He received his MSc degree in Chemistry from the National Institute of Technology, Trichirapalli, India in 2009 and his DSc degree under the guidance of Professor Nagai Keiji at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan in 2013. His research work is mainly focused on the synthesis and characterization of mesoporous nanomaterials for visible light photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical studies of materials. He has published more than 75 research papers in well-reputed international journals.
Francesco Calise DII – Department of Industrial Engineering University of Naples Federico II Naples Italy Biography
Biography of Francesco Calise
Dr. Francesco Calise was born in 1978 and graduated cum laude in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Naples Federico II, Italy in 2002. He obtained the Ph.D. degree in Mechanical and Thermal Engineering in 2006. He is Researcher and Associate Professor at the University of Naples Federico II. He was invited lecturer for some courses or Conferences (UK and Finland). He teaches several courses of energy management and applied thermodynamics at the University of Naples Federico II for BSc, MS and PhD students. He is a reviewer of about 30 international Journals. He was involved in several Research Projects funded by EU and Italian Government. He is Associate Editor of several International Journals. He was a Conference Chair and/or member of Scientific Committee in several session of International Conferences.
Haisheng Chen Institute of Engineering Thermophysics Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China
Sanjay R. Dhage Centre for Solar Energy Materials International advanced Research Center for Power Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI) Hyderabad India Biography
Biography of Sanjay R. Dhage
Dr. Sanjay R. Dhage is presently working as senior scientist at International Advance Research Center for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI) Hyderabad, India. Worked as postdoc at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) (2008-2010) and Chonbuk National University (CBNU), South Korea (2006-2008). Published 61 papers in peer reviewed international journals and proceedings, member of various International and national societies including International Solar Energy society, Materials Research Society of India. Area of research interest is solar energy material and thin film solar cells, laser processing of Materials, Inkjet printing of materials, Metal contact thin films and Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films.
Hanping Ding Department of Mechanical Engineering Colorado School of Mines Golden United States Biography
Biography of Hanping Ding
Dr. Hanping Ding received his Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from the University of South Carolina in 2014. He has over 11 years of experience in developing solid-state electrochemical devices for energy conversion and storage. His specific research interests are focused on advanced functional materials and microstructures for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, direct hydrocarbon fuel cells, proton ceramics, and fuel cell stack system. Currently, Dr. Ding is the postdoctoral fellow at the Colorado Fuel Cell Center in Colorado School of Mines. Dr. Ding has authored and co-authored 2 book chapters and over 40 peer-reviewed journal articles. He served as a reviewer for dozens of energy-related international journals. He received several awards by the University of Science and Technology of China, CoorsTek Company (USA), etc.
Ambrose Dodoo Department of Building and Energy Technology Linnaeus University Växjö Sweden Biography
Biography of Ambrose Dodoo
Dr. Ambrose Dodoo is an Associate Professor in Building and Energy Technology at Linnaeus University, Sweden. He has a PhD in Ecotechnology and Environmental Science from Mid Sweden University, an MSc in Environmental Policy and Management from University of Gloucestershire, UK, and a BSc in Building Technology from Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana. His research focus is on simulation of HVAC systems in building, and life-cycle modelling of energy, cost and environmental implications of building and infrastructure systems.
Moustafa M. Eissa Faculty of Engineering Helwan University Cairo Egypt Biography
Biography of Moustafa M. Eissa
Dr. Moustafa M Eissa is a Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Helwan- Helwan-Egypt. He is a senior of the IEEE-PES and a recipient of Helwan University Research Award for 2005 and 2011. He also owns ETRERA 2020 Prize in the category of Smart Grids (2014) from Europe. In 2002 and 2012, he received Research Excellence Prize from Ministry of Higher Education and State Encouragement prize in the advanced technology science from the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology (Egypt). He has performed research and consulting and has authored many articles in IEEE transaction on Power Delivery, IEEE transaction on Smart Gird, IET, Elsevier and ETEP journals. He has many Large Scale Grants in the smart meters based GIS, Microgrid and Hybrid RES, Hybrid Energy Efficiency with optimization, WAMs based HVDC control/protection, Energy policy makers, DSM and EMS based Smart Grid.
Guillermo Escrivá-Escrivá Department of Electrical Engineering Universitat Politècnica de València Valencia Spain Biography
Biography of Guillermo Escrivá-Escrivá
Dr. Guillermo Escrivá-Escrivá received his PhD in Industrial Engineering in 2009 from the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV). He is a professor at the Electrical Engineering Department in the UPV since 2005. From 2000 to 2005, he worked in a significance construction company as a facility manager. His research work is developed in the Institute for Energy Engineering and includes studies about renewable energy resources management, energy efficiency, power quality and power markets. He presents a high technical training in research and applied studies and great interest in the transfer of knowledge from the university to the industry and vice versa.
Mario L. Ferrari Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica University of Genoa Genova Italy Biography
Biography of Mario L. Ferrari
Dr. Mario L. Ferrari obtained his Degree in Mechanical Engineering with honors at the University of Genoa in 2003. He obtained the Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Genoa in 2006. He has worked as an Associate Researcher in the Dipartimento di Macchine, Sistemi Energetici e Trasporti of the University of Genoa, and as a Researcher at Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems Ltd, under the Marie-Curie program. In the 2010-2015 years he was permanent Researcher in the Dipartimento di Ingegneria meccanica, energetica, gestionale e dei trasporti (DIME), where he had studied the transient behavior of SOFC hybrid cycles and the optimization of smart grids based on both fossil fuel and renewable energy systems (the TPG laboratory of Savona). At the moment, he is Associate Professor in the DIME department of the University of Genoa devoting his activity on advanced energy systems.
Ningbo Gao School of energy and Power Engineering Xian Jiaotong University Xi'an China Biography
Biography of Ningbo Gao
Dr. Ningbo Gao received his Ph.D. from Dalian University of Technology, China. Currently, he is an Associate Professor at the School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, China. He has authored or co-authored more than 70 journal papers including more than 40 SCI/EI papers and 15 international conference papers in energy, environmental and chemical engineering areas. Has authorized more than 25 Chinese patents and 1 US patent. Besides, he has co-authored and edited one book. Dr. Gao’s current research areas include Sewage sludge drying, pyrolysis, and gasification; Oily sludge treatment and resource utilization; Agricultural/industrial biomass thermochemical conversion; Biomass/coal tar catalytic hydrogen production, etc.
Khaled Habib Division of Environment and Urban Development Energy and Building Research Center Safat Kuwait Biography
Biography of Khaled Habib
Dr. Khaled Habib holds a Ph.D in Chemical and Materials Engineering from the Optical Science and Technological Center of University of Iowa, Iowa. He was a Post-doctoral Fellow at the Chem. Engr. Dept., and Mat. sci. Dept., of the Technical University of Aachen, Aachen, Germany, 1991-1992. He specializes in “Laser optical interferometry as non-destructive testing methods of materials evaluation in corrosive media”. Mr. Habib has in his credit more than 129 articles in international refereed journals in his area of specialization. He is a fellow of the SPIE. Also, he is an elected member of the international Corrosion Council.
Heyou Han College of Sciences Huazhong Agricultural University Wuhan China
Chien-Te Hsieh Chemical engineering and Material Sciences University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN United States Biography
Biography of Chien-Te Hsieh
Dr. Chien-Te Hsieh received his Ph.D. degree from the Department of Chemical Engineering of National Cheng Kung University in 2001. He is currently a professor at the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan. His research interests focus on carbon materials, electrochemistry, and energy storage devices including Li-ion battery, fuel cell, and super capacitor.
Fangming Jiang Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion Chinese Academy of Sciences Guangzhou China Biography
Biography of Fangming Jiang
Dr. Jiang received his BE (1995) and MS (1998) in in Thermal Science and Engineering from Chongqing University. After obtaining his Ph.D. from Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, CAS in 2001, he worked for IMM GmbH (2002-2004, Germany), University of Aveiro (Portugal, 2004-2006), University of New Brunswick (Canada, November 2005), and the Pennsylvania State University (USA, 2006-2012). In October 2010 he began to work for Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion (GIEC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). He has authored or co-authored more than 100 peer-reviewed journal papers, 22 invention patents, and 18 computational softwares.
Yang Jiang School of Material Science and Engineering Hefei University of Technology Hefei China Biography
Biography of Yang Jiang
Prof. Yang Jiang received a PhD in Chemistry from the University of Science and Technology of China. Currently, he is the Vice-Dean of School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, China. His research interests include 1) Photoelectric Materials and Devices, 2) Nanostructured energy materials and devices, and 3) Advanced materials and technologies. He has published more than 30 articles in well-reputed journals. He has also won awards like Award for Anhui progress of science and technology (1992), Award for National progress of science and technology (1993), Award for Anhui progress of science and technology (2002), and Award for excellent doctoral students form Chairman of Academic Society of China (2001).
Oscar KS HUI Faculty of Science School of Mathematics University of East Anglia Norwich Sahand United Kingdom Biography
Biography of Oscar KS HUI
Dr. Oscar Hui’s research is in the interdisciplinary field of heterogeneous catalysis, Nanoscience and nanotechnology, materials chemistry and science, transport phenomena, and process modelling and optimization. We focus on preparation of functional nanomaterial for efficient energy harvest/storage/conversion and environmental remediation. As PI, he has been awarded a total funding of approximately USD 1.36 million. He has extensive research experience in material science, catalysis, air/water pollution control, and energy storage. He got 2 PhDs and 13 master students graduated under his supervision. Currently, he has been supervising 7 PhD, 13 master students, and collaborating with colleagues in UK, USA, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Australia, China, Hong Kong and Macau. Thus far, his research has led to 1 USA patent, 5 Korea application patents, 119 journal paper publications, 30 invited lectures, and 55 international conference presentations.
Abd Elnaby Kabeel Mechanical Power Engineering Department Tanta University Tanta Egypt Biography
Biography of Abd Elnaby Kabeel
Prof Dr Abd Elnaby Kabeel Ph.D. in Mechanical Power Engineering, University of Technology, Bratislava, Slovak Republic, 1997 is currently a Vice dean for Postgraduate Studies and Research, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Egypt. He worked as a professor in Mechanical power engineering Department. Prof Kabeel published more than 200 Journal paper. He has nearly 23 years of experiences in research and teaching field. He is recipient State Award for Excellence in Engineering Sciences (Egypt) 2013. Abdul Hameed Shoman's Award for Arab Researchers (Jordan)2014, Tanta University Award for Excellence in Performance 2014, The Tanta University recognition award prize in Engineering Sciences 2001. His research interests include thermal renewable energy.
Abolfazl Khalkhali School of Automotive Engineering University of Science and Technology Tehran Iran Biography
Biography of Abolfazl Khalkhali
Dr. Abolfazl Khalkhali received his M.Sc. (Eng.) in Mechanical Engineering in 2005 and the Ph.D. degree in Applied Mechanical Engineering in 2010 from The University of Guilan. He was faculty at the Islamic Azad University (IAE) from 2007 to 2011. He came to the Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) in 2011. He is currently serving as an Associate Professor at the School of Automotive Engineering in IUST. He has served as the Deputy of Chancellor in Research and Education of the School of Automotive Engineering in IUST. He is the head of Automotive Simulation and Optimal Design research laboratory in IUST.
Anil Kumar Department of Mechanical Engineering Delhi Technological University Delhi India
Ashwani Kumar Department of Botany School of Biological Sciences at. Dr. Harisingh Gour University Sagar India Biography
Biography of Ashwani Kumar
Dr. Kumar has done Ph.D. from Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, Two year Foreign Postdoc Fellowship, Qualified CSIR-JRF, ICAR NET, GATE2000, GATE2002, Fellowship received: Commonwealth, Canada; Claude Leon Foundation South Africa, National Research Foundation Fellowship South Africa, Rhodes, University Fellowship, South Africa. He got Shastri Mobility Grant for Canada-2018-2019, Supervised/Supervision: 1 Ph.D. completed, 2 ongoing: 4 Master thesis complete, 2 ongoing. Keynote speaker, Invited speaker and chaired session at International Conference, Convener and organized 2 international and two National Conference, Attended several trainings and workshops related to Instruments and Career development, Editorial board member of some journals, and reviewers of more than 45 journals, Life members of several Societies, Awarded GIAN program (July 22-26, 2019), Member of the Commission on Ecosystem Management, IUCN, Switzerland, Member of Admission Cell 2018, Member of Admission Counselling of UG and PG from 2013-onward, Member of University Placement Cell, External Expert of Several Students advisory committee.
Maurizio Lanfranch Department of Economics University of Messina (Sicily) Sicily Italy Biography
Biography of Maurizio Lanfranch
Dr. Maurizio Lanfranch is a professor of Economics and Agrifood Marketing, Rural and Sustainable development. Department of Economics - University of Messina (Sicily) Italy. His Scientific research activity has been disseminated in about 200 publications among articles published in international journals, monographs, edited and essays in books. His field of interest includes Economics and Agrifood Marketing; economics and tourism development policy of rural areas; use of agricultural waste for the production of renewable energy; role of multifunctional agriculture in the prevention of hydrogeological disaster, the social farm and sustainable development.
Ji Li School of Engineering Science University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China Biography
Biography of Ji Li
Dr. Ji Li is currently a Professor at the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS). Prior to this appointment, he was an Associate Professor with the same institute from 2008 to 2011. Dr. Li earned his undergraduate degree in Mechanical Engineering from Xi’an Jiaotong University in 1992. He earned his Master degree and Doctoral degree in Thermophysics Engineering at the Institute of Engineering Thermophysics (IET), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), in 1997 and 2001 respectively. Dr. Li is the Founder and the Director of the Educational Laboratory of Thermophysics and the Laboratory of Advanced Thermal Management technologies at UCAS. He is the leading author of about 40 peer-reviewed international journal papers and about 40 international/national conference papers. He is the holder of more than 30 China patents and 5 US patents. His research interest includes Phase Change Heat Transfer, Heat Pipes, Advanced Thermal Management Systems, and Micro fluids.
Cuibo Liu Department of Chemistry Tianjin University Tianjin China Biography
Biography of Cuibo Liu
Dr. Cuibo Liu obtained his Ph.D. from Tianjin University (P. R. of China) in 2015 (with Professor Bin Zhang). After that, he joined Professor Kian Ping Loh’s group at the National University of Singapore for his postdoctoral research. He has been serving as an Associate Professor at Tianjin University since October 2019. His research interests are mainly focused on photo catalysis, single-atom-catalysis, as well as electro catalysis by using nanomaterial for the selective synthesis of labelled molecules and energy storage.
Jinlin Lu School of Materials and Metallurgy University of Science and Technology Liaoning Anshan China
Indra Mahlia Faculty of Engineering & Information Technology University of Technology Sydney Ultimo Australia Biography
Biography of Indra Mahlia
T M Indra MAHLIA is a Distinguished Professor in the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering - University of Technology Sydney, and a highly-cited researcher in the field of engineering. He is a core member of the University’s Centre for Green Technology, which aims to develop novel technology for future clean fuels, vehicle emissions measurement, and environmental decontamination. His research interests include sustainable energy, renewable energy conversion and storage, forestry biomass and bioproducts, automotive combustion and fuel engineering. He is involved as a researcher in a $5 million project funded by various sources. He is listed as a Highly Cited Researcher by Clarivate Analytics in 2017 - 2021 and a field leader in Sustainable Energy (Engineering & Computer Science) in a special report published by The Australian in 2019. His publications include more than 350 journal articles, proceedings and research reports, of which more than 300 are in WOS and Scopus indexed.
Jardan Mosa Institute of Ceramic and Glass Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Madrid Spain
Astrid M. Müller Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA United States Biography
Biography of Astrid M. Müller
Dr. Müller is a staff scientist at the Beckman Institute at the California Institute of Technology. She has more than 15 years of experience in the research of ultrafast light-matter interactions, spectroscopy of organic solar cell materials, and heterogeneous catalysts and photoelectrodes for sustainable energy applications. As of May 2017, Dr. Müller's h-index is 22 with over 1,800 citations of her more than 35 peer-reviewed journal publications and 1 patent; of particular note is her recent review article on earth-abundant heterogeneous water oxidation catalysts. She was recognized as Outstanding Reviewer for Chemical Communications in 2016. Dr. Müller's current research interests focus on the systematic characterization of laser-synthesized inorganic nanomaterials that serve as electrocatalysts or light absorbers for solar water-splitting devices.
Behzad Najafi Department of Energy Polytechnic University of Milan Milan Italy Biography
Biography of Behzad Najafi
Dr. Behzad Najafi is an adjunct professor at the Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Italy, and the scientific responsible of this university’s Data Analytics and Optimization for Energy Applications Laboratory. His research interest include simulation and optimization of energy systems, with a particular focus on fuel cell based residential micro-CHP units, and the applications of data analytics in the energy sector, specifically aimed at building performance simulation. He has authored more than 20 articles in top-tier journals in the field of energy (Scopus h-index: 13) and has also served as a reviewer for several journals in this area.
Andrea Nicolini Dipartimento di Ingegneria Università degli Studi di Perugia Perugia Italy Biography
Biography of Andrea Nicolini
Prof. Andrea Nicolini is an Associate Professor in Industrial Applied Physics at the University of Perugia, Italy. PhD in Environmental Applied Physics in 2003, from 1999 he carried out his research activities at the Department of Engineering of the University of Perugia, where Dr. Nicolini is a lecturer of “Applied Physics for Food Factories” and “Energy resources and alternative energies”. He is the author of more than 150 scientific papers published on journals and conference proceedings (h-index = 15 in Scopus), in the fields of renewables, energy storage, energy efficiency in buildings, urban heat island mitigation, hydrogen and fuel cells, biomass, environmental impact of energy plants. Manager of the Acoustics Laboratory of the Department of Engineering of the University of Perugia from 2015. He is the Director of the Biomass Research Centre of the University of Perugia from 2016.
Jia-Hong Pan School of Renewable Energy North China Electric Power University Beijing China Biography
Biography of Jia-Hong Pan
Dr. Jia Hong Pan received his PhD (2007) from Inha University, Korea. After postdoctoral trainings at Nanyang Technological University, National University of Singapore, and Leibniz Universität Hannover, he joined School of Renewable Energy, North China Electric Power University, China as a Full Professor in Oct. 2015, where he is now leading a research group working on photochemical conversion and storage over semiconductors. He served as an Editor of Journal of Photocatalysis and Frontiers in Chemistry, and Guest Editor of Catalysis Today and International Journal of Photo energy. He is the author of 60+ journal publications with citations of >2800.
Elif Altürk Parlak Chemistry Institute TUBITAK Marmara Research Center Kocaeli Turkey Biography
Biography of Elif Altürk Parlak
Dr. Elif Alturk Parlak is a senior scientist at Material Institute of The Scientific and Technological Reasearch Council of Turkey (TUBITAK). She received her Ph.D. in Istanbul Technical University of Polymer Science and Technology programme in 2006. She has worked as a postdoc in Cergy Pontoise University in France in 2007. Dr. Parlak has authored 25 scientific publications and in the field of conducting polymers its electrochromic and super capacitor applications, organic photovoltaics, stability of organic photovoltaics. Dr. Parlak has 264 times of citations, her h index is 10. Dr. Parlak RG Scores is 25.84 in Researchgate.
Sanjay K.S. Patel Department of Chemical Engineering Konkuk University Seoul South Korea Biography
Biography of Sanjay K.S. Patel
Dr. Sanjay Patel received his B.Sc. degree (Chemistry) from Banaras Hindu University, M.Sc. (Biotechnology) from Himachal Pradesh University, and a Ph.D. (Biotechnology) from the University of Pune, Pune, India. He studied microbial biodiversity exploration for biotechnological applications. He is presently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. His primary research interest during this time is bioactive molecules, biofuels, biocatalysts, protein engineering and nanotechnology.
Anna Laura Pisello Department of Engineering University of Perugia Perugia Italy
Andreas Poullikkas Department of Electrical Engineering Cyprus Energy Regulatory Authority Nicosia Cyprus Biography
Biography of Andreas Poullikkas
Dr. Andreas Poullikkas holds a Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng.) degree in mechanical engineering, a Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) degree in nuclear safety and turbomachinery, a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in numerical analysis and a Doctor of Technology (D.Tech.) higher doctorate degree in energy policy and energy systems optimization from Loughborough University, U.K. He is a Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (FIET). Dr. Andreas Poullikkas is currently the Chairman of the Cyprus Energy Regulatory Authority (CERA) and he was for several years the Chairman of the Cyprus Energy Strategy Council (both appointments by the President of Cyprus). In his professional career he has worked for academic institutions and for the industry, such as, a Visiting Faculty at Harvard University, USA, the Cyprus University of Technology (Professor of Power Systems and Chair of the Department of Electrical Engineering) and the Electricity Authority of Cyprus (founder and director of the Research and Development Department). He is the Associate Editor of the Journal of Power Technologies, member of the Editorial Board of the journal Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments and the author of various peer-reviewed publications in scientific journals, book chapters, conference proceedings and the author of nine books. He is included in the World’s Top 2% Scientists and the World’s Top 100000 Researchers Lists, both published by Stanford University.
Fathollah Pourfayaz Department of Renewable Energies and Environment University of Tehran Tehran Iran Biography
Biography of Fathollah Pourfayaz
Dr. F. Pourfayaz received BSc, MSc and PhD degrees in Chemical Engineering from University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran in 2000, 2004 and 2010, respectively. He is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Renewable Energies and Environment, University of Tehran. He presently focuses on research fields such as Design, Optimization and exergy/thermodynamic analysis of the energy systems (renewable energies-based hybrid systems, CHP systems and …) and nanotechnology application in energy systems especially renewable energy systems. He has authored more than 75 papers in international journals and conferences.
Daniela Proto Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II Naples Italy Biography
Biography of Daniela Proto
Dr. Daniela Proto received the MSc and Ph.D. degrees both in Electrical Engineering from the University of Naples, Federico II (Italy), respectively in 2000 and 2004 and a Postgraduate Master’s degree in ‘Software Technologies’ from the University of Sannio (Italy) in 2001. She was fellow research at the University of Naples, Federico II until October 2012, lecturer of the Course on “Industrial Power Systems” at the University of Sannio from 2010 to 2012 and lecturer of the course on ‘Conventional and Renewable Energy Generation’ at the Second University of Naples (Italy) from 2012 to 2015. She is currently professor at the University of Naples, Federico II. Her research interests include Electrical Power Systems and Electrical Transport Systems. She co-authored more than 80 publications.
Mohammad G. Rasul School of Engineering and Technology Central Queensland University Rockhampton, Queensland Australia Biography
Biography of Mohammad G. Rasul
Dr. Mohammad Rasul obtained his PhD in the area of Energy from The University of Queensland (Australia). Currently, he is an Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering at the School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Australia. He has published over 400 research articles/papers in journals, conferences and book chapters. He has also edited four books including book on Clean Energy for sustainable development (Elsevier). He has supervised 22 Research Higher Degree (RHD) students to completion. His external and internal grant funding has totaled about $3 million. Research interests include energy, thermodynamics and process industries; renewable and clean energy (solar, biomass, bio-fuel, wind, etc); energy, water and environmental sustainability and development. He is an Editor-in-Chief for Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering.
Carlo Renno Department of Industrial Engineering University of Salerno Salerno Italy Biography
Biography of Carlo Renno
Dr. Carlo Renno is an Associate Professor of Applied Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer at University of Salerno (Italy). He is an author of about 50 technical-scientific papers which have been published on international journals with referees and presented to international congresses. He is responsible or participating of different research projects. He develops his research activity in the field of Applied Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer, with a particular attention to the study of the vapor compression plants and solar cooling systems both from the experimental and theoretical point of view. At the moment, the aim of the research study is the theoretical and experimental analysis of some technical solutions able to use Thermal Energy that can be obtained by concentrating photovoltaic systems.
Antonio Rosato Department of Architecture and Industrial Design University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli” Aversa Italy Biography
Biography of Antonio Rosato
Dr. Antonio Rosato is presently serving as an Associate Professor at the Department of Architecture and Industrial Design of the University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli” – Italy. His main current research fields are related to smart renewable thermal grids using seasonal thermal energy storages, micro-polygeneration systems, as well as electro chromic windows. He is a reviewer for several international scientific journals and he co-authored more than 70 scientific papers. He was scientific coordinator of several research agreements with private companies and he participated to a number of research projects. Currently he is member of the Italian regional affiliate of the International Building Performance Simulation Association.
Yogesh C. Sharma Department of Chemistry Indian Institute of Technology(BHU) Varanasi India
Vidya N. Singh Indian Reference Materials Division National Physical Laboratory of India New Delhi India Biography
Biography of Vidya N. Singh
Dr. V. N. Singh obtained his Ph.D. degree in Physics from I.I.T. Delhi (2005), M.Tech. from I.I.T. Delhi (1999), M.Sc. from BHU, Varanasi (1998) and B.Sc. from Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, (1996), all based in India. Since 2011, he has been associated as Scientist at N.P.L., New Delhi, India. In brief, he is working in the field of processing and characterization of various metal oxide and chalcogenide systems, composites and semiconductors. He is currently looking after electron microscopic facilities at CSIR-NPL, New Delhi, India. Dr. Singh has several publications in highly reputed journals, like Advanced Materials, Small, Nanoscale, Nanotechnology, etc. He has published nearly 160 articles in various journals and 4 book chapters.
Brent S. Steel School of Public Policy Oregon State University Corvallis, OR United States Biography
Biography of Brent S. Steel
Dr. Brent S. Steel is a Professor of Political Science and Director of the Public Policy Graduate Program at Oregon State University. He has published journal articles and books concerning renewable energy policy, science policy, environmental policy, state and sustainable communities. He is co-author of Prospects for Alternative Energy Development in the U.S. West: Tilting at Windmills? (2017) and coeditor of the Environmental Politics and Policy of Western Public Lands (2020), which has an emphasis on climate change and renewable energy development.
Fei Wang School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation Shanghai University Shanghai China Biography
Biography of Fei Wang
Dr. Fei Wang has been a Faculty Member with the School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai, since 2010, and became a Professor in March, 2018. He has authored/co-authored more than 100 technical papers, one academic book, and also 10 authorized invention patents. His current research interests include distributed generation, and smart grid.
Shengchang Xiang College of Materials Science and Engineering Fujian Normal University Fujian China
Donghai Xu Energy and Power Engineering Department Xi’an Jiaotong University Xi’an China Biography
Biography of Donghai Xu
Dr. Donghai Xu is a Professor from Xi’an Jiaotong University, China. He ever studied in University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, USA) as a visiting scholar for one year. He has published more than 80 SCI papers which cited by more than 1500 times, with an H-index of 18. His research fields include biomass energy, hydrothermal treatment, supercritical fluid technology, etc. He writes two books which are published in Springer Press and Xi’an Jiaotong University Press. He gets awards such as the Gold award in the 8th International Exhibition of Inventions, and China Patent Excellence Award.
Wenxian Yang School of Engineering Newcastle University Newcastle United Kingdom Biography
Biography of Wenxian Yang
Dr Wenxian Yang is a lecturer in offshore renewable energy at Newcastle University. His early research was focused on developing innovative condition monitoring and fault diagnosing techniques for rotating and reciprocating machinery. Small part of them was for developing new NDT & NDE techniques. Since 2007, his R&D activities were diverted to wind, wave and tidal renewable energy exploitation, particularly focused on the condition monitoring, fault diagnosis, operation and maintenance of onshore/offshore wind turbines. So far, he has published over 100 high quality research papers in this field in peer-reviewed journals and conferences.
Ye Yao School of Mechanical Engineering Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai China Biography
Biography of Ye Yao
Dr. Ye Yao is an Associate Professor at the School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China. He received his Ph.D. from Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), China. He was promoted as an Associate Professor of SJTU in December, 2008. From September 1st, 2009 to September 1st, 2010. He performed his research work in Ray W. Herrick Lab at Purdue University (PU), USA. He was awarded as an Excellent Reserve Youth Talent and SMC Excellent Young Faculty by SJTU, respectively, in the year 2009 and 2015, and got Shanghai Pujiang Scholars Talent Program in the year 2012. His current interests of research mainly include: (a). Heat and mass transfer enhancement technology; (b).HVAC modeling and optimal control for energy conservation. He has successfully published about 40 SCI publications (h-index=14) and 30 Chinese patents aa well as two academic books (First author). He is now the peer reviewer of many international academic journals, like ‘International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer’, ‘International Journal of Thermal Sciences’, ‘International Journal of Refrigeration’, ‘Energy’, ‘Building and Environment ’，’Energy and Buildings’ and ‘Applied Energy’.
Yang Yongping School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering North China Electric Power University Beijing China Biography
Biography of Yang Yongping
Prof. Yang is currently the President of North China Electric Power University in
Beijing, China. He obtained his Ph.D. degrees from Thermal Engineering, Institute of
Engineering Thermophysics. Prof. Yang has published more than 500 Journal papers,
delivered ~50 invited lectures and is associated with >50 invited conference talks. His
Journal papers are highly cited with >4000 times in total according to ISI Web of
Science. His innovative research has won him numerous awards including State
Science and Technology Progress Awards, the NSFC for Distinguished Young
Scholars Award. Prof. Yang currently serves as Vice President of Chinese Society of
İlker Yılmaz Department of Airframe and Powerplant Erciyes University Kayseri Turkey Biography
Biography of İlker Yılmaz
Dr. İlker YILMAZ graduated from Erciyes University, Mechanical Engineering Department in 1999 with a
first degree. He received his PhD degree in Mechanical Engineering from Erciyes University in 2006. In
between 2008 and 2009, he was a post-doctoral researcher at Iowa University, Iowa City, USA. In May
2015, he was appointed to Erciyes University as a professor. He is currently working as a professor at
Erciyes University and is also the director of the clean combustion laboratory (CCL). His research
interests are aircraft engines, aerodynamics, unmanned aerial vehicles, thermo-acoustics, clean
combustion technologies. He has published more than 90 articles and conference papers, most of them in
prestigious scientific journals as well as two book chapters published by Springer International Publishers
and the CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
Associate Editorial Board Members
Hassan Elattar Department of Engineering Benha University Benha Egypt Biography
Biography of Hassan Elattar
Dr. Hassan Elattar is currently employing as an Associate professor of Thermal Engineering at Benha Faculty of Engineering, Benha University, Egypt. Dr. Hassan Elattar has awarded his PhD from Magdeburg University, Germany on September 2011 in the field of heat and fluid flow simulation in rotary kilns and he had completed his MSc in the field of refrigeration and air-conditioning on March 2006 from Benha University, Egypt. Currently, Dr. Hassan Elattar research interests in the field of thermo-fluids (i.e. Refrigeration systems, Air-conditioning systems, HDH Water desalination systems, CFD simulation for thermal systems).
S. Shankara Narayanan Department of Physics Sharda University Greater Noida India Biography
Biography of S. Shankara Narayanan
Dr. S Shankara Narayanan is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Physics, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, India. He has research expertise in the field of thermal energy storage using phase change materials and the optical spectroscopic studies on nanocrystals and nanobioconjugates. He has delivered talks in several national and international conferences together with a contribution of 20 peer-reviewed research papers published in renowned international journals and 5 filed patents.
Himanshu A. Pandya Botany, Bioinformatics and Climate Change Impacts Management Gujarat University Ahmedabad India Biography
Biography of Himanshu A. Pandya
Dr. H.A. Pandya apart from serving as a full-time Professor, he also serves as the Honorable Vice-Chancellor of Gujarat University with additional responsibilities related to innovation in research. He is a highly passionate research and academic professional with a multitude of technical skills and having cumulative experience of 25 years as faculty on actively working in various multidisciplinary research projects on Plant Genomics, Climate change and Impacts management, Bioinformatics and Forensic Science. He is a result oriented leader mentoring Masters and PhD students, publishing over 120 international and national publications in high impact factor journals and presenting scientific reports, proposals and variety of datasets to a diverse national and international audiences.
Aneeya K. Samantara School of Chemical Sciences National Institute of Science Education and Research Odisha India Biography
Biography of Aneeya K. Samantara
Dr. Samantara is a post-doctorate fellow in School of Chemical Sciences at National Institute of Science Education and Research, Khordha, Odisha, India. He has Doctorate in Science from CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, India. He obtained his Master of philosophy in chemistry from Utkal University and Master of Science in Advanced Organic Chemistry from Ravenshaw University, Odisha. Dr. Samantara’s has authored in 19 peer reviewed international journals, Six Books and four Book Chapters. Dr. Samantara has numerous honors and Awards to his credit.
Anshu Sharma Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology Delhi New Delhi India Biography
Biography of Anshu Sharma
Dr. Anshu Sharma is currently working as an Assistant Professor at Department of Physics under the School of Engineering & Technology, Central University of Haryana, Mahendergarh, India. She is also working as a Guest Scientist at Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Hamburg, Germany. In the past, she worked as a Women Scientist and Principal Investigator at Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and Research Associate at Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Division, Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, Govt. of India. Dr. Anshu has also worked as Assistant Professor at Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur. Her research interest includes nanomaterial for energy (solar and hydrogen) and environmental (gas sensing and purification) applications. Dr. Anshu has numerous honors/awards and fellowships to her credit. She has successfully completed three major research projects and currency working on three major research projects. She has published 40 peer reviewed papers.
Muhammad Tahir Department of Applied Chemistry The University of Lahore Lahore Pakistan Biography
Biography of Muhammad Tahir
Dr. Muhammad Tahir obtained his PhD in Materials Science from Beijing Institute of Technology in 2015. And now working as an assistant professor in Xian Jiaotong University, China. His research interests include the design and synthesis of nano-structure materials and their applications in electro-catalysis, photocatalysis and Super-capacitor. He has published more than 60 papers as an author/co-author in peer reviewed international SCI journals with various publishers including world premium scientific journals like, JACS, Advanced Energy Materials, Nano Energy, Nano Research, Applied Catalysis B, JMCA, ACS energy Letters, etc. His total impact factor is about 350 with 30 h-index and 3400 Citations. He has also provided services as a reviewer for International journals such ACS, RSC, Willey and Springer etc., Dr. Tahir has also won several International awards such as Dr. Abdus Slam award in the field of Physics and excellent student award from Beijing Institute of Technology during his PhD.
Wang Xinli School of Control Science and Engineering Shandong University Jinan China Biography
Biography of Wang Xinli
Dr. Wang Xinli received his PhD in Control Science and Engineering in 2015 from Zhejiang University. He is current an Associate Professor at the School of Control Science and Engineering in the Shandong University since 2016. He has authored or co-authored more than 40 journal/conference papers. He has authorized several Chinese patents and 1 Singapore patent. Dr. Wang’s current research interests include: modeling and optimization of HVAC system, model predictive control (MPC) and intelligent control, PEMFC and renewable energy system, etc.
Executive Guest Editors
Shahram Javadi Department of Electrical Engineering Islamic Azad University Tehran Iran Biography
Biography of Shahram Javadi
Dr. Shahram Javadi is presently serving as an Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering Department in I.A.U central Tehran. He is a senior member of IEEE and he is also an active researcher in Renewable Energies, smart grid, Electric Vehicles, Power electronics and control systems. He has contributed more than 100 papers in international journals and conferences. He is also a member of International and technical committee of WSEAS,IEEE, CIGRE Academic board for International Power System Conference (PSC), Academic board for Power System Protection & Control conference (PSPC), Member of Iranian Association of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IAEEE), Member of the Scientific Committee of Iranian Wind Energy Society and Member of Iranian Fuzzy Systems Society.
Dengwei Jing International Research Center for renewable Energy & National Laboratory of Multiphase flow in power engineering Xi'an Jiaotong University Xi'an China Biography
Biography of Dengwei Jing
Dr. Dengwei Jing is presently serving as a full time professor at the International Research Center for renewable Energy & National Laboratory of Multiphase flow in power engineering, Xi’an Jaitong University. He has been awarded a degree of PhD in Thermal Engineering from the same University in 2007. His field of expertise is in the Multiphase flow modelling and measurement, Solar Energy conversion, Hydrogen production and advanced nanotechnologies for enhanced heat and mass transfer. He has also been awarded as the Newton Advanced Fellowship from the Royal Society, UK. He has published more than 115 peer reviewed journal papers, including Nature Communications, Renewable Energy and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Applied Physics Letters, Physics Fluids, AIChE J, Energy, Solar Energy, Inter J Heat Mass Transfer, etc.